Atlas of Woody Plant Stems: Evolution, Structure, and by Fritz Hans Schweingruber

By Fritz Hans Schweingruber

he „Atlas of Woody Plant Stems“ is a com- obviously, it was once most unlikely to hide thoroughly the Tprehensively illustrated booklet with brief, in- huge, immense variability of flora varieties. now we have formative texts. We selected this format simply because plant attempted, although, to demonstrate the most ideas and anatomy and morphology can purely be conveyed by means of good points. Many many years of assortment and prepa- exact photographs. additionally, a vibrant presentation tion supplied the foundation for this publication. should still allure a broader public, not just the s- cialist. we are hoping that the combo of anatomy Fritz Schweingruber want to thank the Swiss and morphology will create curiosity and interest. Federal study Institute WSL, that provided him Amateurs will benefit from the wide variety of images; hospitality after his retirement. The authors thank all readers can be stuck via specific chap- the scholars and co-workers that experience, for many years, ters; experts will delve into features and picture- accumulated and ready samples, and who helped graphs that can have by no means been awarded ahead of; with the English translations. due to John Kirby lecturers may perhaps use the images for illustrations in who made the fnal English enhancing. sessions with students.

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59 Microscopic section of Alligator Juniper wood (Juniperus depeana), Arizona, USA. Typically, resin ducts are missing (left). Bordered pits on tracheids are uniseriate (right). 60 Microscopic transversal section of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris, left) with resin ducts, and Silver Fir (Abies alba, middle) without resin ducts. Bordered pits on tracheids are uniseriate or biseriate in opposite position (radial section right). 23 SUCCESSFUL PLANTS WITH SEEDS ENCLOSED IN A CARPEL ANGIOSPERMAE 1 THE EVOLUTION OF PLANT STEMS IN THE EARTH‘S HISTORY The first known ecosystem consisting of angiosperms dates to the lower Cretaceous, ca.

17. 17 Pits in the xylem of Norway Spruce (Picea abies). Shown are the big bordered pits of longitudinal tracheids, the small bordered pits of ray tracheids and the simple pits of ray parenchyma cells (bottom). The blue dots in bordered pits represent the valves (torus); the blue dots in parenchyma cells are the thin unlignified cell walls. ). Visible are the bordered pits on the vessel cell wall (upper half) and simple pits with big apertures in ray cells. The side walls show simple pits in the cross section.

20 Bark structure of a Birch tree. Longitudinal cracks indicate the increased girth. The initial bark is on top of the ribs. The newly formed brown cork cells lay between the ribs. 21 Injured structure of a Beech tree. The enlarged, repaired wound („1964“) indicates an increase in girth. The photograph was taken 20 years later. 19 Stem dilatation. Towards the outside of the stem, the cells become bigger, and the ray size increases. Root of Grape Vine (Vitis vinifera). 24 Collapse of sieve tubes and enlargement of parenchyma cells in the phloem.

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